What is stipulated time period within which new re extension need to be filed once a h1b extension is denied

My h1b visa extension denied and I left USA within 7 days of denial. I still have 3.6 years left on my 6 years h1b tenure. Can my employer file for a re extension for some other client under cap exempt while I am in India. Does the new extension need to be filed under a stipulated time period.

Cap-exempt petition can be filed anytime. With new rules put in place in Jan 2017, you have unlimited time to recapture those missing years.